Scrum defines four artifacts: Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, Sprint Goal, and a potentially releasable product increment.
The Scrum Guide lists four artifacts to help manage the work on a Scrum project. All four are defined and described below.
The Product Backlog is an ordered list of everything that is known to be needed in a product. It is constantly evolving and is never complete.
The Sprint Backlog is a list of everything that the team commits to achieve in a given Sprint. Once created, no one can add to the Sprint Backlog except the Development Team.
If the Development Team needs to drop an item from the Sprint Backlog, they must negotiate it with the Product Owner. During this negotiation, the Scrum Master should work with the Development Team and Product Owner to try to find ways to create some smaller increment of an item rather than drop it altogether.
The Sprint Goal is a description of the desired outcome of the Sprint, usually the product increment being created.
At the end of every Sprint, the team must complete a product increment that is potentially releasable, meaning that meets their agreed-upon definition of done. (An example might be fully tested and fully approved.)
A sprint burndown (or burnup) chart is not an official Scrum artifact but many teams use it to communicate and track progress toward the sprint goal during the sprint.
Sprint burndown charts helps teams gauge whether they will complete the work of a sprint. Burndown charts also reinforce the Scrum values of commitment, focus and openness and one of the three pillars of empirical process control: transparency.
Sprint burndowns are a graphical way of showing how much work is remaining in the sprint, typically in terms of task hours. It is typically updated at the daily scrum. As the sprint progresses, the amount of work remaining should steadily decrease and should trend toward being complete on the last day of the sprint. Burndowns that show increasing work or few completed tasks are signals to the Scrum Master and the team that the sprint is not going well.
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